The interdisciplinary engineering discipline known as industrial and production engineering encompasses manufacturing technology, engineering sciences, management science, and the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations (IPE). It is concentrated on understanding and using engineering practices in manufacturing processes and production methods. Industrial engineering may be traced back to the 1700s when Sir Adam Smith, Henry Ford, Eli Whitney, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt, and F.W. Taylor and others launched the industrial revolution. After the 1970s, industrial and production engineering became more widespread and started making heavy use of automation and robots. Mechanical engineering (from which production engineering descended), industrial engineering, and management science are the three subfields of engineering that are involved in industrial and production engineering.
The goal is to raise production effectiveness, increase quality control, increase efficiency, lower costs, and make their products more appealing and marketable. The development, enhancement, and application of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, and materials, as well as analysis and synthesis, are the focus of industrial engineering.
To specify, forecast, and evaluate the outcomes to be acquired from the systems or processes already in use or being developed, the principles of IPE incorporate mathematical, physical, and social sciences as well as engineering design methodologies. Production engineering aims to complete the production process in the fastest, wisest, and most cost-effective manner possible. Industrial engineering and manufacturing engineering share a lot of similarities with production engineering. Manufacturing engineering and production engineering are the same things.
In terms of education, undergraduates typically begin by enrolling in physics, chemistry, computer science, and mathematics (calculus, linear analysis, differential equations). At the end of their undergraduate studies, students will enroll in additional major-specific courses, such as production and inventory planning, process management, CAD/CAM manufacturing, ergonomics, etc. Universities in several regions of the world offer bachelor’s degrees in industrial and production engineering.
Yet, the majority of American universities will provide them separately. Industrial and production engineers may pursue a variety of professional paths, such as those in project management, manufacturing, production, and distribution, as well as plant engineers, manufacturing engineers, quality engineers, process engineers, and industrial managers. Most industrial and production engineers start with a starting salary of at least $50,000, depending on the professional route they choose.
History of Industrial and Production Engineering
The Industrial Revolution is when the Industrial Engineering Profession got its start. The Flying shuttle, the Spinning Jenny, and—possibly most importantly—the Steam engine were among the innovations that helped mechanize traditional manual tasks in the textile industry. These innovations created economies of scale that for the first time made mass production in centralized facilities appealing. The factories built as a result of these developments are where the idea of the production system originated.
People can emphasize the timing issue (inventory, manufacturing, compounding, transportation, etc.) of the industrial organization due to the development of decision support systems in supply between 1960 and 1975. In 1976, the Israeli scientist Dr. Jacob Rubinovitz introduced the CMMS program, which was created by IAI and Control-Data (Israel), to South Africa and other countries.
Japan achieved extremely high levels of quality and productivity in the 1970s because of the adoption of Japanese management philosophies like Kaizen and Kanban. Quality, delivery time, and flexibility difficulties were all improved by these theories. Businesses in the west began putting their Continuous improvement initiatives into place once they discovered the huge impact of Kaizen. During the process of global industry globalization in the 1990s, the focus was on supply chain management and designing business processes with the needs of the consumer in mind. A crucial turning point in the discipline was the development of Eliyahu M. Goldratt’s theory of limitations in 1985.
Manufacturing (Production) Engineering
The intermediate procedures needed for the production and integration of a product’s components are covered in modern manufacturing engineering studies.
Certain sectors refer to these procedures as “fabrication,” including semiconductor and steel producers. Many manufacturing operations, including welding and machining, use automation. Automation used to make things in a factory is referred to as automated manufacturing.
The key benefits of automated manufacturing for the manufacturing process are increased consistency and quality, shorter lead times, simpler production, less handling, improved workflow, and enhanced employee morale. These benefits are attained with the efficient deployment of automation. Flow process diagramming, process mapping, designing assembly workstations, strategizing for different operational logistics, consulting as an efficiency expert, creating a new financial algorithm or loan system for a bank, streamlining operation and emergency room location or usage in a hospital, planning intricate distribution schemes for materials or products (known as supply-chain management).
Predetermined motion time systems, computer simulation, particularly discrete event simulation, extensive mathematical modeling tools like mathematical optimization and queueing theory, and computational methods for system analysis, evaluation, and optimization are frequently used by modern industrial engineers. Due to the close connections between the fields of data science and machine learning and the technical knowledge needed for industrial engineers, industrial engineers also employ these tools in their work (including a strong foundation in probability theory, linear algebra, and statistics, as well as coding skills).